What is Wireless Networking and How does it work?

In this article, we’re going to explore the world of wireless networking. We’ll discuss the need for wireless networks, the basics of wireless access points, the concept of wireless frequencies and channels, IEEE standards, and various wireless modes.

The Need for

In a world filled with laptops and smartphones, the idea of using physical cables to connect devices is becoming less practical. Many modern laptops no longer come with Ethernet ports, and smartphones have never had them. Additionally, users often require the freedom to move around without being tethered to a network. The solution to these challenges is wireless networking.

The Role of Wireless Access Points (WAPs)

To establish a wireless network, we need a device called a wireless access point (WAP), also known as an AP (Access Point). The WAP serves as the central hub of the wireless network, allowing laptops, phones, and other devices to connect wirelessly. This basic configuration is known as a Basic Service Set (BSS).

Basic Service Set (BSS) and Basic Service Area (BSA)

A BSS consists of an access point connecting multiple devices, referred to as members of the BSS. When connected to a wireless network, users are confined to the signal range of the access point. This signal area is known as the Basic Service Area (BSA).

Extending Wireless Networks

For larger wireless networks, multiple access points may be required to extend coverage. This setup is known as an Extended Service Set (ESS). Each access point within the ESS has a unique BSS ID, but they share the same SSID (wireless network name). This allows users to seamlessly roam between access points without reconnecting.

Understanding Wireless Frequencies and Channels

Wireless communication relies on electromagnetic waves to transmit data without physical cables. These waves consist of cycles, with each cycle representing one Hertz (Hz) or cycle per second. Frequencies are typically measured in Hertz, kilohertz (kHz), megahertz (MHz), or gigahertz (GHz).

Wireless frequencies are divided into bands, with different uses allocated to each band. Common wireless bands include radio and TV frequencies. In wireless networking, the primary frequency bands are 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz. Channels within these bands help manage congestion and interference. For instance, in the 2.4 GHz band, it’s recommended to use channels 1, 6, and 11 to minimize interference.

IEEE 802.11 Standards

Wireless networking adheres to IEEE standards, particularly the 802.11 standard. Over time, amendments have been introduced to enhance wireless technology. Compatibility between devices depends on supporting the same amendments.

Various Wireless Modes

Access points can operate in different modes to meet specific requirements:

  1. Repeaters: These devices receive a signal from an access point and retransmit it to extend wireless coverage.
  2. Workgroup Bridges: They act as wireless clients, connecting wired devices to a wireless network, useful for devices that lack wireless support.
  3. Outdoor Bridges: These are used to connect remote networks over long distances, ideal for scenarios where laying cables is impractical.
  4. Mesh Mode: Mesh networks are employed for large areas where running cables to each access point is challenging. Access points in a mesh network communicate with one another, creating a seamless wireless network.


Wireless networking has become indispensable in our modern world. Understanding the fundamentals of access points, frequencies, channels, standards, and various wireless modes is essential for maintaining efficient wireless networks. As technology continues to evolve, wireless networking will remain at the forefront of connectivity solutions.

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