Dog  Welfare in a Research Environment

Purpose-bred dog benefit from the advantages of being able to be trained with scripted and controlled experiences and it is this variety of social and physical stimuli that build confidence in the strategies for coping. Baby dogs are handled between birth and weaning has been reported to impact a wide range of aspects which include the rate of growth as well as weight loss, learning, exploratory behavior, emotionality and physiology, reaction to deprivation of water and food and the risk of contracting various pathogens and diseases (Committee on Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals, 1992). It is especially important for puppies to be socialized to other dogs and humans and to be acclimated to various environments between the age of 3-12 weeks of age (Scott and Fuller 1965). Rewarding socialization and acclimation is an ongoing process because dogs have been reported to exhibit behavioral decline when getting older (Boxall and co. 2004).


The puppies of the young have a high development need for sustained, close social contact with conspecifics (Scott and Fuller 1965) and this can be easily met at the breeding facility so it is not a cause of problems with the health of the mother, puppy, or littermates. If a puppy needs separate from mother or other littermates it is recommended that procedures are put established to facilitate human socialization and limit as much as is possible the time that it is separated. It is important for puppies to experience separation as early as they are developing in a comfortable location that has no physical restriction too. Dogs can be extremely hyper-sensitive when they are separated from their the litter(Elliot and Scott 1961), so incremental separations are less stressful.

Another essential aspect of puppy care is to help them develop confidence in the direction of people as part of their social structure. Similar to how puppies learn to be controlled by their mothers, pet care professionals must teach them to be able to accept human control in a nonthreatening way. It can be helpful to gauge how well pups are able to handle human interaction and control (Meunier 2006; Wolfle, 1990).

For dogs older than 10 years that were purchased through random-source dealers, details of the background over time are not known. Temperament evaluations will be the major determination on the dog’s suitability to be used in a lab setting. However, temperament tests aren’t uniform or reliable, however, general characteristics can be evaluated (Beaver, 2009). The calm, quiet, and adaptable dogs are preferred.View chapter purchase book

Cloning of Canines

Byeong Chun Lee, in Principles of Cloning (Second Edition), 2014

History of Dog Cloning

Cloning of dogs began in large breeds of dogs. “Snuppy,” the first cloned dog, was born in 2005 using the donor cell of a male Afghan dog, and the results, which were titled “Dogs cloned from adult somatic cells,” were published in the journal Nature (Lee et al. 2005). The first dog to be cloned made through the use of an in the vivo matured oocyte that was enucleated before being fused with a mature skin cell from the dog who donated it. The next year 3 females that were cloned Afghan dogs were created (Jang et al., 2007) We followed their growth and assessed their reproductive capacity by artificial breeding with “Snuppy.” From these researches, we found that both female and male dogs are cloned using SCNT and also that they are able to reproduce normally capabilities (Park et al. 2010,). A cloned puppy was created from an old donor aged 14 (Jang et al., 2008). A donor fibroblast cell was injected into the infected oocyte of a big breed dog. After fusing the somatic cell from the dog with a small size with the oocyte of the large breed dog after which the reconstitued SCNT embryos were transferred into an the oviduct of a larger breed of dog. This way we demonstrated that dogs of large breed can be utilized as oocyte donors and as surrogate mothers to duplicate a small breed dog (Jang et al., 2008). In the same year two female cloned beagles were created from fetal fibroblasts through a large breed donor (Hong et al., 2009a). Through these research studies, it was shown that fibroblasts from dogs taken from the fetal stage up to the age of old can be reprogrammed using SCNT. The years 2006 and 2007, the cloned female (Kim et al., 2007) and male wolves (Oh et al., 2008) were produced successfully using interspecies SCNT. This result suggested that the dog cloning technique has potential for conservation of species of dogs in extreme situations, including sudden death. Seven cloned drug-sniffing dogs were developed in 2007 from one dog with this unique aptitude (Oh et al. 2009). Subsequently, a cancer-sniffing dog was in the hands of SCNT at the end of 2009 (Park et al., 2009a), and an alert dog was created to identify an agricultural item was developed in the year 2012 (Oh et al. 2013). Cloned drug sniffing dogs, cancer-sniffing dogs that were cloned, as well as animals that are cloned for quarantine have been confirmed, after having carried out their duties out in field. These results indicate that canines that use SCNT methods are capable of creating dogs with exceptional abilities. In the end, a cloned dog was created that constantly expressed the red fluorescent protein (RFP) gene (Hong et al. 2009b) as well as one that was able to express that green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene (Kim et al. 2011). It was demonstrated through germline transmission through natural breeding that these dogs were transgenic.

The dogs have been cloned in the last eight years. A lot of history has been created, and there is no doubt, canines’ SCNT methods will continue to be used across a variety of fields in the near future.View chapter-purchase books

Canine Genomics and Genetics

Elaine A. Ostrander, Falina Williams, in Reference Module in Life Sciences, 2019

Breeds and Population Structure

The biggest registrar of dogs in the world is called the Federation Cynologique Internationale, which has recognized 339 breeds as of 2013. The 339 breeds are split into 10 categories based on the appearance, behavior and function. There are other niche breeds that exist in “in process” and technically as a whole, if not formalized are in line with the definition of an actual breed, with estimates of over 500 domestic dog breeds across the globe.

The American Kennel Club (AKC) currently recognizes 189 breeds. There are many but not all selected on the basis of appearance. To be registered as a breed the breeding population needs to not only conform to the established standards for body conformity and behaviour. However, these changes have to “breed true.” That is, any cross between breeds should result in puppies that adhere to the same standards as parents. For a single individual to be registered as a breed, the dog must have parents that were registered members belonging to the exact breed. Recent molecular studies using an array of SNPs have given a lot of insight into how different breeds of dogs relate one to another and reveal how many breeds likely developed (Fig. 1).

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