Welfare Of Dog in a Research Environment
Purpose-bred dog have the advantage of being educated with scripted activities which is why it is the wide range of physical and emotional stimulus that develops confidence for coping strategies. Baby dogs are handled between birth and weaning is believed to influence a range of traits that include growth rate in weight and size, the rate of learning, exploratory behavior, emotionality and physiology, reaction to deprivation of food and water and the incidence of some diseases or pathogens (Committee on Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals, 1992). It is particularly critical that puppies be exposed to other dogs and humans and be acclimated a variety of environments from 3-to-12 weeks old (Scott and Fuller 1965). Rewarding socialization and acclimation is an ongoing process because dogs have been reported to exhibit behavioral changes when they get getting older (Boxall and co. 2004).
Young puppies have a high development need for sustained, close social interaction with their conspecifics (Scott and Fuller, 1965), and this should be easily achieved at breeding facilities as it is not a cause of health issues for the mother, puppy, or littermates. If a puppy does need to remain separated from their mother or other littermates there should be procedures implemented to allow for human socialization and limit any time it is separated. It is important for puppies to experience separation as early as they are developing, preferably in a familiar area with no physical restraint also. Dogs can be extremely sensitive when they finally are separated from their friends from their litter(Elliot and Scott, 1961) Thus, a gradual separation can be less stressful.
Another crucial aspect of the puppy training is to teach them to gain confidence in the direction of other people as part of their social structure. As puppies are taught to be subdued by their mothers the staff who care for animals must teach them to accept control from humans without threatening them. It’s helpful to gauge how well pups accept human interaction and control (Meunier 2006; Wolfle, 1990).
In the case of older dogs purchased through random-source dealers, long-term background information is unknown. The temperament test will be the main factor concerning the dog’s ability to be utilized in a laboratory setting. However, temperament tests are not well standardized or reliable, but general traits can be assessed (Beaver, 2009). The calm, quiet and able dogs are preferred.View the chapter Buy the book
Byeong Chun Lee, in Principles of Cloning (Second Edition), 2014
History of Dog Cloning
Cloning of dogs began by cloning large breed dogs. “Snuppy,” the first cloned dog, was born in 2005 , using a donor cell from a male Afghan hound, and the results, titled “Dogs cloned from adult somatic cells,” were published in the journal Nature (Lee and al.., 2005). The first dog to be cloned made through the use of an in living matured oocyte. It was then enucleated, and then fused with an adult skin cell from the donor dog. The next year three females who were Cloned Afghan canines were born (Jang et al., 2007), and we monitored their growth and assessed their fertility through artificial breeding using “Snuppy.” From these research, we discovered that both males and females dogs can be cloned with SCNT, and also that they possess normal reproductive abilities (Park et al. 2010,). in 2006, we discovered that a toy cloned by a dog was created using a donor who was 14 years old (Jang et al. 2008). A fibroblast stem cell from the donor was injected into an atrophying oocyte of the large breed dog. After fusing both the somatic cell of the small breed dog with the oocytes of the large breed dog then the newly formed SCNT embryos were transplanted into an in the oviducts of the large breed dog. This way we demonstrated that dogs of large breed can be used as donors of oocytes as well as surrogate mothers in order to duplicate a small breed dog (Jang et al. (2008)). In the same year two female cloned eagles were created from fetal fibroids using a large breed recipient (Hong et al. 2009a). From these experiments, it is found that dog fibroblasts derived from the fetal stage all the way to the age of old can be programmed with SCNT. Both in 2006 and 2007 the cloned female (Kim et al., 2007) and male wolves (Oh et al., 2008) were successfully created using interspecies SCNT; this result indicated that the dog-cloning technique could be a viable option for the preservation of species of dogs in extremely stressful situations, such as sudden death. Seven cloned drug sniffing dogs were developed in 2007 from a dog having this distinct ability (Oh et al. 2009). In the following year, a cancer-sniffing breed was propagated by SCNT in 2009 (Park et al., 2009a) as well as an animal that was a quarantine dog for the purpose of detecting the presence of an agricultural product in 2012. (Oh et al. 2013). Cloned drug-sniffing dogsand cloned cancer-sniffing dogs, and cloned quarantine dogs have now been confirmed, after having carried out their duties on the job. These results indicate that canines using SCNT methods have the potential of creating dogs with remarkable abilities. Additionally, a cloned animal was developed that consistently was expressing the Red Fluorescent Protein (RFP) gene (Hong et al. 2009b) as well as one that was able to express that green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene (Kim et al., 2011). It was proved by germline transmission using natural breeding methods that the cloned dogs had transgenic.
Dogs have now been cloned in the last eight years. A number of historical records have been madeand there’s no doubt, canines’ SCNT methods are likely to continue to find uses across a variety of fields in the future.View the chapterPurchase book
Canine Genomics and Genetics
Elaine A. Ostrander, Falina Williams, in Reference Module in Life Sciences, 2019
The biggest registrar of dogs in the world is known as the Federation Cynologique Internationale, which recognised 339 breeds in 2013. The 339 breeds are classified into 10 categories based on the appearance, behavior and function. Other niche populations exist in “in process” and technically, if not formally, meet the definition of a breed, resulting in estimates of more than 500 breeds of domestic dogs worldwide.
The American Kennel Club (AKC) currently recognizes 189 breeds, with several but not all selected on the basis of appearance. In order to be registered as a breed the breeding population needs to not only adhere to established standards regarding body conformation and behavior, but the changes must “breed true.” That is, a cross between breeds should produce puppies that are in line with the same standards of the parents. For a single dog to be registered as a breed, the dog has to have parents who were registered as members belonging to the exact breed. Recent molecular studies utilizing an array of SNPs provide a great insight into how different breeds of dogs have a relationship with each other in a way that suggests how many breeds could have developed (Fig. 1).